Waterjetting Technology – Repairing Concrete

By Dr. David A. Summers, Curators’ Professor at Missouri University of Science & Technology

KMT Waterjet Systems Weekly Waterjet Blog

KMT Waterjet Systems Weekly Waterjet Blog

Some years ago, we were on a bridge in Michigan, working on a demonstration of the ability of high-pressure jets to remove damaged concrete from the surface of the bridge. Before the demonstration began, the state bridge inspector walked over the bridge armed with a length of chain. He would drop the lower links of the chain against the concrete at regular intervals and, depending on the sound made by the contact, would decide if the concrete was good or not. He then marked out the damaged zones on the concrete and suggested that we got to work and removed those patches.

Automated removal of damaged concrete with water pressure

Figure 1. Automated removal of damaged concrete with water pressure

The change in the sound that he heard and used to find the bad patches in the concrete was caused by the growth of cracks in that concrete. It was these longer cracks and delaminations in the concrete that made it sound “drummy” and which identified it as bad concrete.

Now here is the initial advantage that a high-pressure waterjet has in such a case. The water will penetrate into these cracks. As I mentioned in an earlier post, water removes material by growing existing cracks until they intersect and pieces of the surface are removed. The bigger the cracks in the surface, the lower the pressure that is needed to cause them to grow. This is because the water fills the crack and pressurizes the water – the longer the crack, the greater the resulting force, and thus the greater the ease in removing material.

At an operating waterjet pressure of between 11,000 and 12,500 psi for a normal bridge-deck concrete, the cracks that are long enough for an inspector to call the bridge “damaged” will grow and cause the damaged material to break off. The pressure is low enough, however, that it will not grow the smaller cracks in “good” concrete, which is therefore left in place.

Damaged area of bridge after jet passes

Figure 2. Damaged area of bridge after jet passes.

In order to cover the bridge effectively and at a reasonable speed, six jets were directed down from the ends of a set of rotating crossheads within a protective cover. The diameter of the path was around 2 feet, and the head was traversed over the bridge so that it took about a minute for the head to sweep the width of a traffic lane.

Scarifying jets with the head raised above the deck so that their location can be seen

Figure 3. Scarifying jets with the head raised above the deck so that their location can be seen. Normally, the nozzles are positioned just above the deck, so that the rebounding material is caught in the shroud.

Unfortunately, while this means that the rotating waterjet head could distinguish between good and bad, and remove the latter while leaving the former, it could not read marks on concrete. So where the bridge inspector was not totally accurate, the jet removal did not follow his recommendations. It was, however, quite good at removing damaged concrete from reinforcing bar in the concrete where the water migration along the rebar had also caused the metal to rust. And, since the pressure was low enough to remove the cement bonding without digging out or breaking the small pebbles in the concrete, they remained partially anchored in the residual concrete. As a result, when the new pour was made over the cleaned surface, the new cement could bond to the original pebbles, and this gave a rough non-laminar surface, which provided a much better bond than if the damaged material had been removed mechanically with a grinding tool.

Rebar cleaned by the action of the jet as it removes the surrounding damaged concrete

Figure 4. Rebar cleaned by the action of the jet as it removes the surrounding damaged concrete.

Waterjets had an additional advantage at this point: In contrast to the jackhammer that had previously been used to dig out the damaged region, but which vibrated the rebar when it was hit, so that damage spread along the bar outside the zone being repaired, the waterjet did not exert a similar force, so that the delamination was largely eliminated.

Now this ability to sense and remove all the damaged concrete is not an unmixed blessing. Consider that a bridge deck is typically several inches thick and it is usually sufficient to remove damaged concrete to a point just below the top layer of the reinforcing rods. Once the damaged material is removed, the new pour bonds to the underlying cement and the cleaned rebar. But the waterjets cannot read rulers either. So in early cases where the deck was more thoroughly damaged than the contractor knew at the time that the job began, the jet might remove all the damaged concrete, and this might mean the entire thickness of the bridge deck. And OOPS this could be very expensive in time and material to replace.

What was therefore needed was a tool that still retained some of the advantages of the existing waterjet system, namely that it cut through weakened concrete and cleaned the rebar without vibration, but that it did so with a more limited range so that the depth of material removal could be controlled.

There was an additional problem that also developed with the original concept. For though the jets removed damaged concrete well in this pressure range, the jets were characteristically quite large (about 0.04 inches or so). The damaged concrete is contaminated with grease and other deposits from the vehicles that passed over it. Thus any large volumes of cleaning water would also become contaminated and as a result will have to be collected and treated. That can be expensive, and so any way of reducing the water volume would be helpful.

The answer to both problems was to use smaller jets at higher pressures. Because of the smaller size, their range is limited and at the same time the amount of water involved can be dramatically reduced. It does mean that the jet is no longer as discriminatory between “good” concrete and “bad.” This is not, however, a totally bad thing, since when working to clean around the reinforcing rods, there has to be a large enough passage for the new fill to be able to easily spread into all the gaps and establish a good bond.

Thus the vast majority of concrete removal tools that are currently in use are operated at higher pressures and lower flow rates. This allows the floor to be relatively evenly removed down to a designated depth, and this makes the quantification of the amount of material to be used in repair to be better estimated and the costs of disposal of the spent fluid and material to be minimized.

Scarified garage floor showing the rough underlying surface

Figure 5. Scarified garage floor showing the rough underlying surface. This will give a good bond to the repair material, as will the cleaned rebar.

The higher pressure system has the incidental advantage of reducing the back thrust on the cutting heads so that the overall size of the equipment can be reduced allowing repair in more confined conditions.

Waterjet Technology – Cleaning with Heat

By Dr. David A. Summers, Curators’ Professor at Missouri University of Science & Technology

KMT Waterjet Systems Weekly Waterjet Blog

KMT Waterjet Systems Weekly Waterjet Blog

Water is used almost everywhere as a way of cleaning surfaces. Several times a day, we typically rub our hands together with water and usually with some soap to clean them. Pediatricians and others suggest that children recite a short rhythm such as a chorus of “Happy Birthday” while doing so to allow the water, soap and mechanical actions to combine and effectively remove dirt. That teaches the child that it takes some 20 seconds for the cleaning action to be effective. The cleaning action is not to sterilize germs, viruses and other obnoxious things on the hands. Rather it is to ensure that they and other dirt particles are physically removed, leaving the hands clean. (This is a different action to the chemical washes that are becoming popular.)

This is not an instantaneous process since the soap and water must reach into all the dirt-collecting parts of the hand – hence the need for the nursery rhythm. The same basic sequence occurs in the cleaning action of a high-pressure waterjet on a surface, although the pressure of the spray means that the water can penetrate faster. But it is why, in using a car wash lance in cleaning a car, it is smart to spray the body of the car with a detergent first, and then allow this to work in creating micelle clusters around the dirt particles, so that the mechanical action of the subsequent jet spray will dislodge and remove them. Merely adding detergent to the cleaning water as it goes through the cleaning lance and strikes the car surface does not give the chemicals in the water time to act before they are gone. Bear in mind that the jet is moving at several hundred feet per second and that it hits and rebounds from the surface over a path length of perhaps an inch or two. As a result, the residence time of the jet on the surface is measured in fractions of a millisecond. This is not enough time for the chemicals to work. (On the other hand it does help keep the sewers under the car wash cleaner than might be otherwise expected.)

With an increase in jet pressure, the speed of the mechanical removal of dirt and other particles from a surface can be fast and effective. The ability of the jet to penetrate into and flush out surface cracks and joints means that it becomes a good tool for removing debris from the joints in concrete decks, and, at a little higher pressure, it can also be used to remove deteriorated concrete from surfaces. But I am going to leave that topic until next week.

The other “treatment” that we use when we wash our hands is to heat the water. When used with soap, it helps to remove the surface oils on the skin that act as a host to bacteria. Heat is becoming a less common tool than it used to be in high-pressure jet cleaning. At one time, steam cleaning which was followed by hot pressure-washing had a larger sector of the market. It is a bit more difficult to work with (the handles of the gun get hot, and the operator needs more protection) but for some work it is still the more effective way to go.

Steam, however, loses both heat and mechanical energy very quickly after it leaves the nozzle. It will, for example, lose some 30% of its temperature within a foot of the nozzle. Hot sprays of water can thus be more effective, but when cleaning grease and oils, a lower temperature spray will merely move the globs of grease around the surface. Heating the water to around 185 degrees Fahrenheit (or 85 degrees C) will stop that happening and works much more effectively in getting the surface clean.

The effect of water temperature on cleaning different surfaces of different types of dirt

Figure 1. The effect of water temperature on cleaning different surfaces (A, B and C) of different types of dirt.

But, as with many tools, heated water needs to be applied with a little bit of background knowledge. I mentioned that just pointing a large jet of water at, for the sake of discussion, a boulder covered with an oil spill would, at lower water temperatures, just move the oil around the surface. At higher temperatures, the oil would break into smaller fragments that are removed from the surface, but they need to be captured, otherwise the treatment is just spreading the problem over a larger area. This is why it becomes more effective to use smaller, higher pressure systems that have lower contained jet energy and which can be used with a vacuum collection system to pick up the displaced water, oil and debris.

Using hot, pressurized water streams in cleaning up after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

Figure 2. Using hot, pressurized water streams in cleaning up after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (NOAA )

With the streams used in the picture shown in Figure 2, the energy in the jet will move the oil, but without containment it was being washed down to the water, where it was collected using booms. This is not particularly effective since in the process, the jets also washed the silt out of the beach and drove some of the oil down into the underlying beach structure, so that it continued to emerge in later years contributing to an ongoing problem.

What is needed is to provide enough energy to drive the oil away from the surface and yet not enough to move it great distances or to disrupt the surrounding material. This can be achieved by using a higher-pressure but lower flow rate jet. Because some of the water will turn to steam as it leaves the nozzle, Short (PhD U Michigan, 1963) showed that the droplet size will fall from 250 microns to 50 microns when the water is heated above 100 degC.

Obviously, that also will reduce the distance that the jet is effective, and so a balance needs to be achieved between the heat put into the water and the size of the orifice(s) if the jets are to remove the contamination but in such a way that it can be captured. And here again there is a benefit from having a suction tool associated with the cleaning spray. Because of the problems that oil and grease can cause, it will require special care in designing the capture systems downstream. Incidentally, it is generally better if the water is heated downstream of the pump, since there are higher risks of cavitation in the inlet ports if the water is too hot.

And sometimes the two can be combined in ingenious ways. For example Bury (2nd BHRA ISJCT, Cambridge, 1974) added a steam shroud around a conventional waterjet at 5,000 psi as a way of cleaning hardened plastic from the insides of a chemical plant pipe.

Wrapping a conventional waterjet in a steam shroud

Figure 3. Wrapping a conventional waterjet in a steam shroud (Bury et al 2nd BHRA ISJCT, Cambridge, 1974)

Without the steam assist, the plastic was not removable even at higher jet pressures, but with the steam to soften the plastic the pipe was successfully cleaned.

High-pressure water fails to remove hardened plastic

Figure 4. High-pressure water fails to remove hardened plastic, (lhs) but with a steam shroud a lower-pressure jet effectively cleans the pipe (rhs). (Bury et al 2nd BHRA ISJCT, Cambridge, 1974).

High-pressure Waterjet cleaning over sandblasting paint

By Dr. David A. Summers, Curators’ Professor at Missouri University of Science & Technology

KMT Waterjet Systems Weekly Waterjet Blog

KMT Waterjet Systems Weekly Waterjet Blog

Over the years, I have been caught up in “discussions” with several folk about how good high-pressure and ultra-high pressure waterjet streams were as a surface cleaning tool in contrast with chemical and abrasive use in removing paint and other surface layers. One debate was about cleaning some particularly toxic chemicals from various surfaces. The point that often comes up in these discussions is that of “how clean is clean?” And in this particular case it was stated that the surface could never be completely cleaned. The rationale for that position was that the chemicals would enter into any cracks and flaws in the paint and could therefore be retained either in the top coat or the underlying primer. My answer to that was to take a small sample and clean the surface over the first quarter, raise the pressure and remove the top coat on the second quarter, raise the pressure further and remove the primer down to bare metal on the third quarter and then, after adding a small amount of abrasive to the water, remove a thin surface coat of metal from the sample. It seemed to be a convincing demonstration, though I will come back to one problem in a later post, and for this post I will discuss taking the paint off.

It is now reasonably well known that high-pressure water can be cost effective as a way of removing paint, particularly from large structures such as bridges and ship hulls, but it took a while for some of the benefits to become evident.

Quebec Bridge

Figure 1. It was originally estimated that it would save some $1.75 Canadian per square foot to clean the Quebec Bridge with ultra-high pressure waterjets rather than sandblasting. That increases to $4.50 per sq. ft. if hand tools were the alternative (WJTA Jet News, March 2000)

There are 8-million square feet of surface in the bridge. As I noted at the end of the last post, the historic method for cleaning surfaces and removing deteriorated paint has been to suspend abrasive particles in an air stream and to use those particles to abrade and erode the paint from the surface. When the paint, rust and other coatings have been removed, the job is often considered finished as the surface is restored to a nice and shiny finish. There is, however, a snag when one does this. The numbers that I was once given were on the order of: from the time that a railroad wagon was put into service, it would take 5 years before it would require stripping and repainting. After that first treatment, however, the paint would deteriorate more quickly, and often within another 18 months, the wagon would have to be taken back for repainting.

So why is this, and why does high/ultra-high pressure paint removal help extend the life of that second paint coating? I and the industry are deeply indebted to Dr. Lydia Frenzel who did a lot of the pioneering work in helping to define the benefits of the technology and then spread the word about them. The problem begins as the surface begins to corrode, and I will continue to use the wagon as the example, though the result holds true for many surfaces. As the rust and damage continues to eat through the paint and into the underlying metal, that surface is not attacked evenly, but instead, small pockets of corrosion develop and the metal is eaten away mainly in the middle or along the sides of the pocket.

By the time that the surface is ready to be painted, it is therefore no longer smooth but rather pitted and covered in corrosion.

Exaggerated illustration of the condition of the surface

Figure 2. Exaggerated illustration of the condition of the surface, with the overlying corrosion shown in green.

When the surface is cleaned with an abrasive, typically driven using an air stream to sandblast the surface, the particles will impact and distort the surface. Thus, while the majority of the corrosion will be removed by the impact and scouring action of the abrasive, some will not. Further, the impact of the abrasive particles will bend over the weaker structures on the surface as well as peeling over some of the metal on the surface.

Electron microscope picture of a piece of metal on the edge of a pass by an abrasive laden stream

Figure 3. Electron microscope picture of a piece of metal on the edge of a pass by an abrasive laden stream, so that the action of the individual particles in cutting into and plowing the surface can be seen. Note that this peels over metal edges, for example at the arrows.

The peeling over of the surface and the flattening of it give the shine that used to be the sign that the job had been effectively done. There are, however, two disadvantages to this. The first is that by distorting the surface, the bending over of the metal traps small pockets of corrosion within the surface layer of the metal.

Representation of the metal surface after it has been cleaned with abrasive

Figure 4. Representation of the metal surface after it has been cleaned with abrasive. Note the folding over of metal to trap corrosion products. The abrasive particles are also not small enough to penetrate into the smallest tendrils of corrosion migrating into the metal, and these pockets (green) also are trapped.

With corrosion already embedded in the surface before it is painted, that will develop immediately and thus the relatively short time before it undercuts the paint and causes it to fall off. There is also another reason for this. As air pressure is increased to speed up the cleaning and give that “shinier” surface it smoothes the surface and makes it more difficult to anchor the paint on the metal. This was shown by F.W. Neville (and is quoted in the book “Blast Cleaning and Allied Processes, by H.J. Plaster) with this table:

Relative paint pull strength as a function of the pressure of the air driving the sandblasting stream in pre-cleaning the surface of the old paint

Figure 5. Relative paint pull strength as a function of the pressure of the air driving the sandblasting stream in pre-cleaning the surface of the old paint, prior to repainting.

As the table shows, the higher the air pressure then the smoother the surface, and the poorer the bond made with the paint.

Now consider what happens when a high-pressure jet cleans the surface. The water does not have the power to distort the metal, but rather does have the ability to penetrate all the cracks and pits on the surface, and flush them clean. As a result the surface is left rough (to give a good paint bond) and corrosion free.

Illustration of the relative condition in which a high-pressure waterjet will leave the surface

Figure 6. Illustration of the relative condition in which a high-pressure waterjet will leave the surface

One of the difficulties that early proponents such as Lydia had in getting the technique accepted, however, lay in the cleanliness of the surface. Because the metal had not been distorted back into a smooth upper surface, it does not reflect light in the “shiny” manner that an abrasive cleaned surface does. Thus to those trained to the latter, it did not appear clean. There had to be a considerable amount of demonstration, explanation and training before it was accepted that this “grey” surface was actually cleaner. And there are now standards issued by the Steel Structure Painting Council that recognize this.

A primer coated plate (left) that has been cleaned to white metal (right) using a high pressure waterjet

Figure 7. A primer coated plate (left) that has been cleaned to white metal (right) using a high pressure waterjet.

Note that actual microphotos of abrasive and waterjet cleaned metal surfaces can be found in the paper by Howlett and Dupuy (Howlett & Dupuy, NACE Corrosion/92, paper No. 253; Mat. Perf, Jan. 1993, p. 38, the waterjet pressure was 30,000 psi).

Waterjet Technology – Higher pressure washing with power

By Dr. David A. Summers, Curators’ Professor at Missouri University of Science & Technology

KMT Waterjet Systems Weekly Waterjet Blog

KMT Waterjet Systems Weekly Waterjet Blog

In the last post, on surface cleaning, I showed how the jet from a fan nozzle spread very quickly once the water left the orifice. With this spread, the stream got thinner to the point that, very rapidly, the jet broke into droplets. These droplets decelerate very rapidly in the air and disintegrate into mist which rapidly slows down. That mist has little capacity but to get a surface wet, and thus, within a very short few inches, the jet loses power and the ability to clean.

How can we overcome this? Obviously, the jet would work better if it could carry the energy to a greater distance. And the jet that does that (as we know from trips to Disney) is a cylindrical stream. In some parts of the cleaning trade this is known as a zero degree jet to distinguish it from the fifteen degree or other angular designation of the fan jet nozzles that it is often sold with.

But the problem with a single cylindrical jet is that it has a very narrow point of application. Depending on the standoff from the nozzle to the target this will increase a little as the distance grows but is still likely to be less than a tenth of an inch. That by itself would make cleaning a bridge deck a long and laborious job. But consider that if we spun the jet so that it is tilted out to cover a 15 degree cone, the same angle as the best of the fan jets, the water would travel further. With a good nozzle it is possible to extend the range to 3 ft rather than the typical 4 inches of a fan jet.

The gain in performance when a fan spray is changed to a rotating cylindrical jet

Figure 1. The gain in performance when a fan spray is changed to a rotating cylindrical jet (initially proposed by Veltrup, these are our numbers)

In both cases, the water flows out of the orifice at the same volume and pressure. But with the rotating jet the water is able to carry the energy some 9 times as far. As a result the area covered is 9-times as wide, and the job is carried out faster.

You can also look at it another way. It takes only about 10% of the water and the power to clean the surface with the rotating jet as opposed to the amount required to clean with the fan jet. This is even though the pump unit and the flow rates are the same in both cases. This is why, when you buy some of the smaller pressure washers, they include a nozzle that has a round orifice and which then oscillates within a holder. Not quite as efficient as a controlled movement, but at least it is a start.

Now, of course, life is never quite as simple as it at first appears. Because the jet is being rotated there is sometimes, if the jet is being spun fast enough, some breakup of the jet because of the speed of rotation. And so, in the above example, too high rotation speed would have a disadvantage. Doug Wright showed this in a paper he presented to the WJTA in 2007.

The effectiveness of a rotating jet at two speeds and at different distances

Figure 2. The effectiveness of a rotating jet at two speeds and at different distances (Doug Wright 2007 WJTA Conference Houston).

On the other hand because the jet has to make a complete rotation before it comes back to the same point on the coverage width, if the lance is moving too fast relative to that turning speed, then the jet will miss part of the surface that it is supposed to be cleaning.

I can illustrate this with a sort of an example. To make it obvious, the rotating jet has enough power to cut into the material that it is being spun and moved over. If the rotation speed is too slow relative to the speed that the head is moving over the surface, then the grooves cut into the surface won’t touch one another and small ribs of material are left in the surface. Neither from a cleaning nor from a mining perspective is this a good thing. The material we were cutting in this case was a simulated radioactive waste that an improved design later went on to extract as a “hot” material in a real world project. These materials tend to be unforgiving if they are not properly cleaned off.

Cutting path into simulant showing the grooves and ribs where the rotation speed is not properly matched to the speed of the head over the surface

Figure 3. Cutting path into simulant showing the grooves and ribs where the rotation speed is not properly matched to the speed of the head over the surface

There is another answer, which is becoming more popular for a couple of different reasons. If the pressure of the water is increased, then the jet will remain coherent for a greater distance, at a higher rotation speed. Going to a higher rotation speed also brings in an additional change in the design of the cleaning head.

Cleaning head concept sectioned to show vacuum capture of the debris through the suction line

Figure 4. Cleaning head concept sectioned to show vacuum capture of the debris through the suction line after the jet has removed the material and washed it into the blue cylinder

As the pressure increases, so does the energy of the water and the debris rebounding from the surface. To a point this is good, since once they are away from the surface, it is relatively simple – providing the cleaning operation is confined within a small space by a covering dome – to attach a vacuum line to the dome and suck all the water and debris into a recovery line. The surface remains relatively dry, all the water and debris is captured and the tool can be made small and light enough that it can be moved either by a man or on the end of a robotically controlled arm. (The arm we designed the head for was over 30-ft long, which means that the forces from the jets had to be quite small).

With the higher pressure also comes the advantage that the amount of water that is required, for example to remove a lead-bearing paint from a surface, is much lower. If the water becomes contaminated by the material being washed off, then not only has the total volume to be collected, which is an expense, but it also must be stored and then properly be disposed of. And that may cost several times the cost of the actual cleaning operation if the contaminant is particularly nasty. So reducing the volume of the water is particularly useful.

For removing asbestos coatings from buildings, a friend of mine called Andrew Conn came up with the idea of tailoring the pressure and the flow from the nozzles, so that the amount of water required was just enough that it was absorbed by the asbestos as it was removed. This idea simplified and reduced the costs of cleanup, which was a significant part of the overall price.

And speaking of using higher-pressure water, this means that there is no need for the abrasive additive when cleaning, say, a ship hull. And that means that there is no need to buy, collect, and dispose of the abrasive during the operation.

Spent cleaning abrasive at a shipyard

Figure 5. Spent cleaning abrasive at a shipyard

There are other advantages to the use of high pressure water over abrasive when cleaning metal, and I’ll talk about that subject a little next time.